The Yorkshire Terrier Snuggles & Kisses There's a Time for Play and a Time for Love
A dog breed that's sure to love. The Yorkie may come at the end of the alphabet, but it's one of the top most popular breeds. This petite terrier is adorable, highly intelligent, affectionate, smart and overflowing with liveliness. With their spunky and impish sense on humor they will certainly fill your heart and home with love! Curious and Bold Spirited and Loyal Active and Brave Self-Confident
The Yorkshire Terrier is one of the smallest dog breeds in the world, yet they seem oblivious to their minute size, and are an energetic dog breed that is forever seeking adventure, love and attention.
So, where did the Yorkshire Terrier come from?
The Yorkshire Terrier also known as it's nickname, "Yorkie" is no more than 100 years old and originated during the Victorian Era in Scotland, England. They derived from the now-extinct Paisley Terrier referred to as the "Clydesdale Terrier", a terrier type of dog similar to the Skye Terrier. The Yorkshire was originally bred for catching rats in mines and clothing mills and also was bred to hunt and borrow underground after badgers and foxes.
The Paisley Terrier had a long flowing silky coat of blue and tan, that they acquired from their ancestors, the Waterside Terrier, a small Scottish breed. This is where the Yorkshire gets its color and silky long coat from. The Yorkshire made its first appearance in Scotland, England in 1861 during a bench show. At that time they were known as the "Broken Haired Scotch Terrier". Yorkshires kept this title for (9) nine consecutive years until a show reporter commented that the "breed" should be known as the Yorkshire Terrier because the breed had improved so much since their arrival to England.
The Yorkshire Terrier that owners know and love today is slightly smaller than the original breed and is now considered more of a fashion accessory to some rather than a hunter. Yorkshires love to be pampered by it's owner, yet still enjoy activities and remains a true "terrier' at heart. They are born black and tan and gradually change into a blue and tan color between 1-2 years of age with the color shift beginning at their feet. Some Yorkshires can take as long as 3-4 years before their true coat color emerges. They have a long, silky and straight coat that is parted down their backs and flows down to their feet. They are very intelligent, alert, active, clever and quick learners. They make wonderful and devoted companions that need and require a firm but consistent owner in order to be a well rounded loving family pet.
Below are pics of the Paisley Terrier, "Huddersfield Ben" and his pedigree, a Yorkshire Terrier born in 1865 universally acknowledged to be the foundation Sire of the breed todayalong with other pics of famous Yorkshires.
Huddersfield Ben Whelped in 1865 and died in 1871. In spite of his short life span, he was responsible for producing most of the foundation stock of the Yorkshire Terriers seen today. He was an extremely popular stud dog, being prepotent and especially due to his reputation as "One of the first to breed true to the Yorkshire Terrier type". He regularly sired stock that competed in the under 7 pound limit dog shows. Huddersfield died in 1871 when he was ran over by a carriage and killed at the young age of 6 years.
Colors of the Yorkshire Terrier
Yorkshire Terriers are born black and tan and the majority of Yorkshire Terriers are a two-colored combination of four possible options according to the AKC standard:
Black & Gold
Black & Tan
Blue & Gold
Blue & Tan
Parti Colors: Black/White/Gold, Black/White/Tan, Blue/White/Gold, Blue/White/Tan, Liver/White/Gold, Liver/White/Tan, Blonde/White/Gold, Blonde/White/Tan. These colors were added in 2000 and are not allowed to be shown in the ring at this time. There are other coat colors such as Liver, Liver & Tan, Blue, Black, and Gold listed below.
Color changes occur as the Yorkie matures. A Yorkie that has white is a partial or full biewer which is a recessive gene of the Yorkie, the only difference is color and placement. If a Yorkie is fully tan or chocolate this is also because of a recessive gene and just not allowed in the AKC show ring.
As far back as 1976 it was documented in a book published by, Janet E. Bennet and Joan B. Gordon that Yorkshire Terrier's can be born: all black, all tan, tan with black points, tri-colored; black-white-tan, all blue, bluish grey with tan points, all white and so remain or change to another shade of their newly born colors.
Today, there are coat colors that are non-standard and they are: Liver (chocolate), Solid Tan (Gold), so dark they appear Black, Blue and Silver, Red Legged, Blue and have the white spotted gene.
Blue Yorkie:they are born black puppies but gradually as they age turn blue due to the greying gene. A blue born Yorkie puppy carries a recessive gene with two copies giving them a blue coat at birth. Sadly, this genetic combination is also lethal.
Black Yorkie: a solid black dog carries a dominant gene for blackness. It is quite impossible to find a purebred black Yorkie. When Yorkies do carry this gene for blackness, they are black with dull hair that lacks shine and the length for the Yorkshire hair does not grow and has a rough texture with the tan being so light it barely is recognizable.
Chocolate (Liver) Yorkie: which can be, chocolate & tan, liver & tan and parti. Chocolate Yorkies are from a genetic mutation and are born completely brown (liver).
Red Legged Yorkie: happens when both parents carry two copies of a specific recessive gene. This Yorkie will be born black and gold but instead of the black changing to blue, the black remains and where the gold is instead of turning tan or staying gold the color turns to a deep shiny red looking almost rust in color. Most stay black and gold.
Merle Yorkie:the merle gene creates mottled patches of color in a solid or piebald coat, blue or odd-colored eyes, and can affect skin pigment as well. Health issues are more typical and more severe when two merles are bred together. *We do not breed Merles or Blue eyed Yorkies*
There are other color variations of the Yorkshire Terrier, the Biewer-Blue parti, BIRO-Chocolate parti, Golddust-Blonde parti and Ocean Pearl-sable color that are discussed with-in this page.
These examples of different Yorkies are not our dogs.
Blue Yorkie (Grey puppy) amongst black and tan puppies.
The Merle Yorkie-- if you see one they are a cross-bred dog. SMM does not breed Merles or blue eyed Yorkies.
Below is a list of health disorders more commonly associated with this breed:
Distichiasis This is a painful eye disorder where too many eyelashes grow around a dog's eyelid, which typically two hairs grow out of the same follicle. If left untreated, the dog's cornea becomes ulcerated which could end up causing permanent damage to their vision. Early treatment is a must to prevent any damage being done.
Legge-Calve-Perthes Syndrome Legg-Perthes disease affects the hip joint and is caused by an inadequate amount of blood reaching it. This results in the dog's femur bone weakening and the end result is that it collapses due to the cartilage around the joint becoming malformed or cracked. Clinical signs of a problem are quite obvious and includes the following;
Pain and Discomfort
Vets typically take X-rays to establish whether a dog is suffering from the condition before recommending the right sort of treatment or therapy.
Luxating Patella This is a condition that affects a dog's kneecaps where they become dislocated or slightly out of position. Although it is a hereditary condition that Yorkshire Terriers often suffer from trauma and injury can also cause Luxating Patella. If the condition is very severe, a vet would recommend surgery to correct the problem.
Liver Shunt Technically called -Portosystemic shunt (PSS)- are not that common in dogs, but if your dog develops liver disease, you may find yourself in need of information. It is a passage "that allows the flow of materials between two structures that are not usually connected". Specifically, in an abnormal blood vessel (or vessels) that connects the portal system is called a portosystemic shunt, thereby bypassing the liver. Liver Shunts can be divided into two categories:
Congenital Shunts: are most common and dogs are quite young when they start experiencing symptoms.
Acquired Shunts: typically develop when blood pressure within the veins connecting the digestive tract to the liver becomes elevated. Most often because of diseases that cause liver scarring (cirrhosis). These dogs tend to experience symptoms when they are older..
Liver Shunt Symptoms: poor growth, poor appetite and/or eating unusual things, weight loss, increased thirst and urination, difficulty urinating or blood in the urine, vomiting, diarrhea, behavioral changes: mental dullness, staring vacantly, poor vision, unsteadiness, circling and head pressing (a behavior exhibited by animals experiencing neural damage or under the influence of certain toxins. An affected animal will often stand in a corner or near a wall with its head hung low, or physically press the head against objects).
In severe cases, blood flow totally bypasses the liver allowing it to flow through the entire body which results in the unfiltered blood poisoning vital organs, namely the heart, lungs and brains. If you suspect your pet may be suffering from the condition, you should get them to the vet so a correct diagnosis can be made followed by the right treatment as soon as possible. These symptoms are obviously not unique to liver shunts and a veterinarian will start the diagnostic process. There are no genetic tests to detect animals that may carry PSS.
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a health issue that affects many toy breeds including the Biro, Biewer, Ocean Pearl and Golddust. Puppies up to the age of 3 months old are more usually affected by the condition which is why it's important to watch out for any symptoms during the first few months of their lives. However, older dogs too can develop hypoglycemia, although this is quite rare which is lucky because there are certain complications that can make the condition much harder to treat when dogs develop hypoglycemia later on in their lives. The very young and smaller breed tend to suffer from the condition if they are not fed at regular intervals throughout the day.
Malocclusions Just like quite a few other smaller terriers, the breed tend to retain their milk teeth which can lead to malocclusions. This is when their adult teeth cannot break through correctly which results in teeth not sitting properly in a dog's mouth.
Reverse Sneezing Reverse sneezing is a condition that affects all types of dogs, but more commonly smaller dogs such as miniatures, Terriers, and brachycephalic breeds. It is a "paroxysmal" respiratory response, meaning that it comes in spasm-like episodes. It is suspected to be caused by irritation or inflammation of the nasal, pharyngeal, or sinus passages. It may be a way for the dog to attempt to remove foreign particles such as dust, powder or other irritants from its upper airways. It is also seen after periods of over-excitement. It can be alarming to an owner, but is not known to be harmful to dogs without any underlying conditions (such as heart disease), and most dogs are completely normal before and after a reverse sneezing episode. In dogs that exhibit reverse sneezing, it is not uncommon for them to have repeat episodes of reverse sneezing throughout their lives.
Conclusion Not all Yorkshire Terriers including the Biro, Biewer, Ocean Pearl and Golddust may develop any of the health issues listed above during the course of their lives. The other thing to bear in mind, is that no matter how well bred a dog might be, bad genes are able to skip several generations so it's always worth knowing about them.
Yorkshire Terrier Standard
General Appearance: a toy breed with long-coated hair hanging straight and evenly down each side, parted from head to end of tail.
Head: small and flat, not too prominent or round, rich golden tan and should not extend down on back of neck.
Muzzle: black nose, not too long, with scissor bite.
Eyes: medium in size, dark in color, sparkling with intelligent expression.
Ears: small, V-shaped, carried erect and set not too far apart.
Neck: chest bright rich tan, may have small white patch.
Body: well proportioned, very compact, back is level with shoulder and rump.
Tail: docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than level of back.
Legs: straight, round paws with black toe nails, dew claws may be removed.
Coat: glossy, fine and silky in texture, long and straight.
Color: born black and tan until matured then blue-a dark steel blue, not silver, all tan hair is darker at the roots and should have no black hair intermingled with the tan.
Height: 8-9 inches and the shoulder
Weight: 1.8 kgs (4 lbs) up to 32 kgs (7 lbs)
Faults: any solid color or colors other than blue and tan, any white markings other than small patch on chest.
The American Kennel Club, AKC and other registries do recognize non-standard colors such as: Chocolate, Parti, Biewer, Golddust, Ocean Pearl, Golden etc. they are allowed to participate in all sanctions except for conformation showings. These Colors are mentioned below.
Pics of Famous Yorkies
1943 "Smokey" (pictured below) a famous female war dog who served as a service dog in World War II.. Thanks to her small size and obedience, she was able to run through pipes and string communication wires under a former Japanese airstrip.
The Biewer Yorkshire Terrier, originating out of Germany is still a Terrier, they are a separate breed from the classical Yorkshire Terrier. The Biewer was initially bred from "two" Yorkshire Terriers, but now recognized as its own breed. Stillions Miniature Miracles is one of the few places you can find IBC registered Biewers.
Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon's were created in 1984 by Mr. Werner & Mrs. Gertrude Biewer, long time breeders of Champion Yorkshire Terriers in Hunsruck, Germany.
In the 1970's Mr. Biewer purchased two dogs from Streamglen Kennel in Germany, specifically - Streamglen Richard born on October 06, 1972 and Streamglen Flora.. Mr. & Mrs. Biewer had been raising and showing Yorkshire Terriers for 20 years and wanted to make their mark by producing Champion Yorkshire Terriers.
Streamglen Richard - a consistent championship show winner, and (most of the Biewer's dogs) were bred from Streamglen Richard, which is the foundation of what is known as the "Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom-Pon."
It was on January 20, 1984, Mr. & Mrs. Biewer’s blue and tan FCI world Champion Yorkshire Terrier's, “Darling von Friedheck” and “Fru-Fru von Friedheck” whelped a litter of puppies. In this litter of puppies was a female puppy with an unusual color pattern, as she had a black pattern on a white background with a tri-colored head that was black-white-gold and was named “Schneeflocken von Friedheck.”
Through selective breeding over the next several years, the couple continued to produce the signature tri-colored headpiece with good symmetry. Their belly, chest, legs and tip of the tail were characteristically white and their hair was straight, silky and long. In the beginning of their breeding practices, the Biewer’s would dock the tails of these dogs just as they had done for years with their Yorkshire Terrier’s. It wasn't until May of 1998 when Germany passed a law prohibiting the docking of tails, when the Biewer’s begun leaving the tails to be natural. Mr. Biewer discovered as some of their tri-colored dogs matured the black color in the coat would turn to a dark blue color, thus giving this breed two distinctive colors: black/white/gold & blue/white/gold. Note* Two Biewer Yorkshire Terrier parents will always produce - Biewer black/white/gold or blue/white/gold offspring.
Mr. Biewer wanted to show his new found tri-colored dogs and first introduced these dogs to the show ring in March of 1988 at Wiesbaden, Germany. He presented two dogs and called them black and white Yorkshire Terriers, to "Verband fur das Deutsche Hundewesen" (VDH), only to be denied acceptance and told they "were wrong color" and "not for breeding." Mr. Biewer was not happy with that decision and went in search for a Club that would accept his tri-colored dogs.
While at a dinner party with a close friend of the Biewers, a singer by the name, Margot Eskens along with her husband. Mr. Esken presented Margot with one of the Biewer's tri-colored puppies on a silver platter as a birthday gift. In Mrs. Esken’s delight she shouted out, “a la Pom Pon” (French) describing the puppy as looking like (English) a “ball of colorful yarn,” which described the puppy perfectly. Mr. and Mrs. Biewer liked Margot’s description so much that they decided to name their newly found tri-colored dogs, “Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom-Pon’s”.
Sometime in (1989) Mr. Biewer found a club, the first club, "Allgemeiner Club der Hundefreunde Deutschland e.V" (ACH), to accept his tri-colored dogs as a "variation of the Yorkshire Terrier but with a different standard than the Yorkshire Terrier." By doing this, what Werner Biewer did was - get his tri-colored dogs to be acknowledged as "a new distinct breed."So, Mr. and Mrs. Biewer drew up a very limited standard for these little dogs and officially registered them as “Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon” to be a color of white-blue-gold.
*It was recorded that the Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon was acknowledged as a new distinctive separate breed in Germany in 1989* Why have I highlighted this information you might ask? I have highlighted this important date because: "if and when a breed is already acknowledged," then that breed should be acknowledged World Wide! Meaning: the "Biewer" was already acknowledged as a separate breed from the Yorkshire Terrier by Mr. and Mrs. Werner Biewer by introducing their dog as a variation of the Yorkshire Terrier with a "NEW Breed Standard" in 1989 in Germany. So, because of that very historical fact - there is only one - "Biewer" and that name goes to the Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon!
Other breeders were intrigued with the Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon and began breeding them as well. Mr. and Mrs. Biewer kept a tight reign on their Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom-Pon breeding programs in Germany and their quality-bred dogs were hard to come by and quite costly to acquire. But, then in 1997 Mr. Biewer passed away and sadly after Werner’s death, Gertrude kept just a few of their Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon’s as pets and their Friedheck Kennel - ceased to exist.
After Werner's untimely death, many breeders started their own attempts to create the perfect Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon and tho' (no-one will ever know what breeds were bred to create the Biewer) 'outside' of Mr & Mrs. Biewers' - Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon's. What we do know is by the year 2000 the Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon had lost its popularity in Germany, as the number of breeders had dwindled significantly.
Then on May 23, 2003 a dog fancier that personally knew Mr. and Mrs. Biewer, Dagmar Pryzstaw opened the 1st Biewer Club, the Deutsche Biewer Club - "Internationaler Biewer Yorkshire Terrier Club" (IBYTC), followed by September 2004 she opened another Biewer Club, the "Internationaler Biewer Club" (IBC) a registry in Germany.
On November 02, 2007, Gertrude Biewer changed the Standard of the Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon by the recommendation of the German Club, Allgemeiner Club der Hundefreunde Deutschland e.V (ACH) to be called the "Biewer Yorkshire Terrier."
Then on October 10, 2012 after a lengthy illness Gertrude Biewer passed away and all that is left of Werner and Gertrude Biewer is a beautiful legacy, the "Biewer Yorkshire Terrier aka Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon."
It has been said by some of the American Biewer Clubs that Mr. Biewer never bred back to the traditional Yorkshire Terrier, which is a myth.
In Fact: Mr. Biewer bred Darling von Friedheck (Champion Traditional Yorkshire Terrier) to several of his tri-colored females. *Note* Mr. Biewer named all his tri-colored puppies with the prefix: "Schnee" meaning Snow (which means white in German) except for Grand Pom-Pon, (from my research). I also found that his traditional Yorkies were all registered with VDH and KFT and all his tri-colored puppies (Biewer Yorkshire Terrier's) were registered with ACH. Mr. Biewer bred Darling to Grand Pom-Pon to produce "Schneerose" and he bred Darling to Schneeflokchen to produce "Scheewitten" and as late as 1992 he bred Schneewirbel von Friedheck to Janny von Friedheck to produce "Schnee-Monsieur von Friedheck", just to name a few. (a list of Mr. Biewer's dogs)
There are breeders of the "Biewer" that state they only breed Biewer to Biewer but, where the breed originated in Germany, even those breeders feel that they don't have enough lines of the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier breed, to only breed Biewer to Biewer, and they actually breed back to the Yorkshire Terrier to further and continue to strengthen the breed. So, if the Germans, where this Biewer Yorkshire Terrier originated from feel they don't have enough lines then, "How do American breeders feel they have enough lines?" Answer: "They don't"
**The Biewer Yorkshire Terrier has only been in existence (acknowledged) since 1984** The "Biewer" has been quite the most debated breed so far in history to come and if you google Biewer you will find they have different acronyms, Biewer, Biewer Yorkshire Terrier, Biewer Breed, Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom Pon and now Biewer Terrier. Not to mention, differentiated accounts on how this Yorkshire Terrier now considered a separate breed originated. But, one thing is certain: the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier originated in Germany.
The Biewer Yorkshire Terrier is recognized here in the US with the AKC, CKC, ACA, AMTC and other registries as a Parti Yorkshire Terrier and in Germany the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier is still recognized with the IHR e.V., IBC, ACH e.V., NHC, and ACH . Please Note* In order to get the tri-color (three colors), Biewer Yorkshire Terrier a recessive piebald gene must be present in both parents dogs, that possess this dominant gene and is said to come from the bloodline of Biewer Yorkshire Terriers originating from German Biewer Yorkshire Terrier's. This is also said for the BIRO, the Golddust and the Ocean Pearl - Biewer's originating out of German Biewer's with rare gene color expression.
The Original Biewer Yorkshire Terrier Standard:
Fiedheck Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom-Pon "Original" Standard
Biewer Yorkshire a la Pom-Pon Standard
RVD Germany UCI Standard May 2002:
(UCI) is an internationally active umbrella organization for national kennel clubs founded 1976 in Germany. UCI e.V. is an international organization. Germany is represented by the Dog Breeders Association (RVD). *Important Note: the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier was registered with ACH e.V. not with UCI.*
Changed German Biewer Yorkshire Terrier Standard on November 02, 2007:
The last German Standard that Gertrude Werner created and signed for the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier. 02.11.2007 (02 November 2007).
Biewer Yorkshire Terrier: (translated to English from the above German Standard) General Appearance: the smallest terrier that owns a long rich coat thats parted on the back. Head: small and flat, by no means round or strongly formed, short catch, deep black nose, eyes medium and dark with intelligent expression, small ears, V-shaped, standing with short, full hair, hair on head and chin. Neck: short, not strong. Hull: very compact with straight backline, well-formed loin. Limbs: completely straight, very luxuriant, covered with hair, paws round. Tail: undocked, abundantly hairy, worn slightly higher than the backline. Hair: medium length on the body, smooth, silky and shiny. Color:
Outer Coat: blue/white, broken or closed, blue/black with white frill, no gold (tan) in top coat.
Legs: legs, and belly and chest hair white.
The Biewer Yorkshire Terrier must have 3 colors: blue or black/white/gold. The dog must have a white neck (brace). The white breast color is of coarse as well as the 4 white legs. The white color of the chest goes down to the neck, also white to the chin. In preface, the white color is not necessary. The face color should be set of dark with tan.
Size: up to 22 cm. Weight: about 3.1 Kg.
Character and Suitability: a delightful, lively, cheerful, affectionate, intelligent and self-confident dog bred as a domestic dog, not only a pet, but lap dog. His hair requires careful care.
*The aforementioned Standard was translated from German to English (which the German Standard is posted below) and obtained from the German Registry to be the Only Standard for the Biewer Yorkshire Terrier and was signed by Gertrude Werner on 11/02/2007 and declared to be valid. *There has never been another changed version since.*
-Brief-History of the United States Parti Yorkshire Terrier: On December 10, 1976 (8 years before Mr. Biewer's tri-colored puppy) were two women named, Joan Gordon and Janet Bennet that had a "parti-colored" male puppy, named "Trippy" born in their Champion Kennel from their "Wildweir Line" Yorkshire Terriers. They decided to keep him and registered him with the American Kennel Club (AKC) as a Black and Tan Yorkshire Terrier because AKC had no parti-color classification at that time. Trippy lived to be 12 years old. Joan claims that at the time Trippy was being born, she had heard of "tricolored" puppies being born in England and that the tricolored pups were imported to Germany from English stock. This means that parti-colors and tricolored (piebald) Yorkies were showing up in litters in the 1970's and earlier, and that Germany's Yorkshires came from English stock, where the Yorkshire Terrier originated from.
Sometime in the 1980's on the opposite side of the United States were the Lipman's- Gloria, with Nikko's Kennel. They were doing the exact same thing as Mr. and Mrs. Biewer. Nikko's Kennel purchased a couple of female Yorkshire Terrier's from Streamglen Kennels, one being "Streamglen Milady" and they also purchased their Champion Sire, "Ch. Quarnhill Fusspot" from Stoneybrook Kennel in 1971. They bred Ch Quarnhill Fusspot to Streamglen Milady and began producing champion Yorkshire Terriers. They continued to line and in-breed and in the 1980's the "parti-color" puppies started showing up in Nikko's Kennel as well. Gloria couldn't bear to put the pups down, so she passed them out the back door as pets and told customers not to say where they got them from.
This is when the Parti Yorkshire Terrier was acknowledged: Here in the US, Summit and Crownbridge were all getting parti-colored and/or tricolored dogs registered with AKC, as they were born from (2) two AKC registered dogs and they wanted the right color to be shown on the papers as: black, white and tan. So, it was sometime in 2000 after 18 months of DNA testings, that AKC accepted the parti-colored dogs and the name "Parti Yorkshire Terrier" has stuck with AKC's Yorkshire Terriers for the last several years.
Pics of the BIRO'S, Golddust & Ocean Pearls Below: